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Schafkopf sie

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schafkopf sie

Apr. Ein Solo Sie ist extrem ungewöhnlich und beim Schafkopf das Traumblatt schlechthin. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass einem Spieler ein solches. Eben dies gilt auch für das bayerische Spiel „Schafkopf“. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit für das Ereignis ein bestimmtes Blatt, z.B. einen „Sie“ (alle. Ober und Unter). Beim Schafkopf zu dritt erhält jeder Spieler wie gewohnt 8 Karten, es lässt sich jedoch Ist die ausgespielte Karte eine Trumpf-Karte, müssen sie ebenfalls ein.

Schafkopf Sie Video

Wenz und Solo - Rekord beim 36 Stunden Unterwasser-Schafkopfen Sie hängen Flyer auf, um zum Beispiel die Fallenjagd als brutale Tierquälerei zu diskreditieren. Bitte beachten Sie unsere Nutzungsregeln. Der Leser wird lernen, welche Gefahren in bestimmten Spielsituationen gegeneinander abzuwägen sind, und sich für das geringere Risiko entscheiden. Entsprechend kann der Besitzer des gerufenen Ass die Ruffarbe nur mit dem Ass anspielen. Zusätzliche Spielvarianten beim Schafkopf: Dadurch klingt es wie das deutsche persönliche Fürwort in vertrauter Anrede. Feuerwehr bekommt Post vom Papst. Die Idee ist eine andere: Ist die Stichzahl ebenfalls gleich, verliert derjenige mit den meisten Trümpfen in den Stichen; ist auch diese Zahl gleich, so verliert der Spieler mit dem höheren Trumpf. Es gilt als Kulturgut und Teil der altbayrischen und der fränkischen Lebensart. Wenn falsches Bedienen nachträglich festgestellt wird, hat die schuldige Partei das Spiel Schwarz siehe Schafkopf-Ordnung 4. Hat ein Spieler die angespielte Farbe nicht, kann er entweder mit Trumpf stechen oder eine beliebige Farbkarte seiner Wahl abwerfen kein Trumpfzwang. Wer die hohen Trümpfe aufnimmt, muss ein Solo spielen. Erst endete der Vertrag.

Schafkopf sie -

Es gibt zwei Gattungen von Spielen: Wurde zu viel verlangt, kann bei strenger Regelauslegung der Differenzbetrag von der Verliererpartei doppelt zurückverlangt werden. In vielen bayerischen Wirtshäusern wird der Sie durch den Brauch gewürdigt, die entsprechenden Karten nicht mehr zu verwenden, sondern einzurahmen und mit Datum und dem Namen des Spielers versehen an die Wand zu hängen. In diesen älteren Schafkopfvarianten wurde die Spielerpartei bei Partnerspielen generell durch ein Zusammenspiel der beiden höchsten Trümpfe ermittelt, wie es ganz ähnlich zum Beispiel auch heute noch im Doppelkopf Kreuz-Damen gehandhabt wird. Er verlässt Neualbenreuth mit einer hohen Auszeichnung. Es gelten dieselben Trümpfe wie beim Rufspiel, aber es geht darum, möglichst wenig Augen zu machen. Hat ein Spieler keinen Stich gemacht, ist dieser "Jungfrau" und bekommt vom Verlierer 40 Pfennig ausbezahlt. Es spielen jeweils zwei Spieler gegen Beste Spielothek in Unterweg finden beiden anderen. Die Augen der Stiche je Partei Beste Spielothek in Rosellen finden addiert. Beste Spielothek in Echetweiler finden Solo mit 3, schwarz gewonnen, Beste Spielothek in Friedenstein finden gelegt: Sau, 10er, König, Ober, Unter, 9er, 8er, 7er. Ein Ramsch kann nicht angesagt werden. Um Kommentare verfassen zu können, müssen Sie sich anmelden. Wm spanien Spieler darf keinen Stich machen. Eichel, Laub, Herz, Schell Unter Beste Spielothek in Unterkuhberg finden Im Gegensatz zum Bettel ist der Durchmarsch kein echtes Solo-Spiel, auch wenn der Durchmarsch-Spieler alleine gegen die anderen drei Spieler ankämpfen muss. Bei Partnerspielen zahlen die beiden Verlierer an die beiden Gewinner den jeweils gleichen Betrag, bei Soli erhält der Solospieler seinen Beste Spielothek in Stallbrüggerfeld finden bzw. Das jacks casino gilze rijen der Weidener Stadtrat in schönster Harmonie. Laufende werden nicht gezählt. Spiele Reihenfolge der Spiele. Der Spieler spielt mit einer As seiner Wahl, der Rufas. Kenne das so, dass der Sie gar nicht verrechnet wird. Beste Spielothek in Aquae Grani finden um Ist die Stichzahl ebenfalls gleich, verliert derjenige mit den meisten Trümpfen in den 888 poker casino ist auch diese Zahl gleich, so verliert der Spieler mit dem höheren Trumpf. Nachdem gegeben wurde und vor der Spielansage kann derjenige, der nur einen Trumpf besitzt, diesen offen auslegen und sagen: Da muss ma vorher a nix ausmachen, weil des a feststehende Regel is. Mein Schwager gibt bei ihm am Ort Schafkopfkurse. In this case, the cutter may instruct the dealer to deal the cards Rizk Casino - 1000 kr + 50 free spins! - for example, "all eight" instead of 2 packets of 4, or "anti-clockwise"etc. The Bavarians mein ticket in a north of the Alps, zodiac casino mindestumsatz inhabited by Celts. It is not likely that it would be selected as a mask for political allusions, unless that the game had been in stargames mindesteinsatz use, Ombre takes its name from the Spanish phrase originally used by the player who declared trumps, Beste Spielothek in Dörrigsen finden soy el hombre, i. Der Schafkopf-Weltrekord ist wieder in München". Um zum Stich zu gelangen, ist entweder ein höherwertiges Bild derselben Farbe oder ein Trumpf zuzugeben. By the 17th century, when it caught on outside Spain, the terms used were those in English, which were anglicized versions of French versions of the original Spanish words. Covers your purchase price and original shipping. Further doubling Contra, Legen, Bock etc. Modern Austria honours this document, datedas the founding of the nation. Here too, there are variations in which another card takes on the function of the Unters in Suit Wenz; in Suit Geier Farbgeierfor example, it is the Obers.

sie schafkopf -

Richtschnur für die Einzelheiten des Spielverlaufs und das Verhalten der Spieler ist das Regelwerk des Bayerischen Schafkopf-Vereins [1] oder die überarbeitete Version der Schafkopfschule. Falls nicht, dann spielen Sie. Achten und Siebenen werden beim Schafkopf mit der kurzen Karte — wie oben erwähnt — weggelassen. Jetzt kann der Voransitzende sagen "Habe ich selber" oder passen. Verrechnet wird er schon, Die Lokalrunden, werden aber wohl mehr kosten: Wir haben ausgemacht, 50 Euro pauschal kostet ein Sie. Daneben haben sich eine ganze Reihe erweiternder Spielmöglichkeiten mit oft nur regionaler Bedeutung entwickelt, deren wichtigste im Kapitel Erweiternde Spielvarianten aufgeführt werden.

If the Rufsau is not played during the course of the game, it may only be played to the last trick. Equally, the owner of the Rufsau can only play the called suit with that card.

The only exception to this rule is that if he has 3 or more cards of the called suit in addition to the Sow at the start of the game, he can play another card of called suit.

Once the called suit has been played in this way, the Rufsau may be discarded This is known as 'running away. In all solo games, the soloist plays against the three other players.

Solo games always rank above over Normal games. Among the solo games, Sie has the highest value, followed by Tout games, then Suit Solo and Wenz which rank equally.

The less common variations listed under Special Forms of the Solo are usually the same rank as Wenz games.

In Suit Solo, the Obers and Unters are the highest trumps as normal; the soloist may, however, choose any suit as the trump suit which then ranks in the order Ace to Seven.

In the past, a Heart Solo was sometimes ranked higher that the other Suit Solos, but that is no longer common today.

In Wenz pronounced "Vents", also called Bauernwenz or Hauswenz there are only four trumps, the four Unters , which are also known as Wenzen , hence the name of the contract.

They rank in the usual order from highest to lowest: Acorns, Leaves, Hearts and Bells. The Obers are ranked in their suits between the King and the Nine.

Hearts is just a normal suit. By Tout , the bidder is declaring that the defenders will not take a single trick; if that happens, the declarer wins the game, otherwise the defenders take it.

A Tout is normally valued at twice the normal game value. The highest value Solo game in Schafkopf is Sie, which occurs if a player is dealt all 4 Obers and all 4 Unters in short cards, the 4 Obers and 2 highest Unters count as a Tout.

The probability of this is 1 in 10,, in short cards 1 in , It is the only game which that does not have to be played out; the hand is simply placed on the table.

It normally scores four times the basic game value. In many Bavarian pubs, a Sie is honoured by the custom of no longer using the cards, but framing them on the wall together with the date and name of the player.

The four players sit crosswise as the table. Before the game begins, the first dealer is determined, usually by drawing the highest card from the deck.

The dealer shuffles the cards, then lets the player to his right cut the pack before dealing a packet of 4 cards clockwise twice often 4 packets of 2 cards in tournaments , starting with the player to his left, the forehand or elder hand, who will also leads to the first trick.

The role of dealer rotates clockwise; four games make a 'round'. When cutting, at least three cards must be lifted or left lying; taking this rule into account, the pack may be cut up to 3 times.

In this case, the cutter may instruct the dealer to deal the cards differently - for example, "all eight" instead of 2 packets of 4, or "anti-clockwise" , etc.

Before the actual start of the game, there is an auction or bidding phase Spielansage which determines who will be the declarer and which game variant will be played.

After that, the right to bid passes to the next player in a clockwise direction, until finally the dealer gets a chance to bid.

If a game is announced, the other players still have the option of announcing a higher-value contract i. If players bid games of equal value, positional priority decides who plays.

If no player announces their intent to play all say "pass" or Weiter , there are several possibilities, which should be agreed upon before the start of play:.

Once the game has been announced, forehand leads to the first trick and then the other players play a card in clockwise order. Once there are four cards on the table, the player who has won the trick cards picks it up and places it face down in a pile on the table.

The winner of the trick leads to the next trick and so on, until all 32 cards - 8 tricks - have been played. Depending on the type of card played, a distinction is made between 'suit tricks' and 'trump tricks'.

To win the trick, either a higher-value card of the same suit or a trump card must be played. If there is already a trump in the trick, it can only be beaten by a higher trump.

If a trump card is not mandated no Stichzwang , but a suit card is played, all players must follow suit; if a trump is played, it must be followed by a trump if the player has one Bedienpflicht.

If a player does not have the led suit, he can either trump or discard a suit card of his choice no Trumpfzwang. Failure to follow suit, criticising or verbally trying to influence the game generally results in the loss of the game.

If a trick is not yet completed i. After the game is over and the card points are counted, the game is scored. In partner games, the two losers pay the same amount to the two winners, in solos the soloist receives his payment from or pays his loss to all three players.

Winners must request the correct amount for the game before the cards are dealt for the next game. If the winner overclaims, then twice the difference can be recouped by the losing team if the rules are applied strictly.

When all tricks are taken, the card points in each team's trick pile are totalled. The declarer's team declarer plus partner, or soloist must score more than half the total points to win, i.

This means that the defenders only need 60 points to win. A hand where the declarer's team or soloist takes over 90 points is called " Schneider " tailor , and attracts a bonus.

If a team fails to take any tricks not even one worth 0 points it loses "Schwarz" black , attracting a further bonus for the winner s. The tariff is - as everything else in Schafkopf — a question to be settled before the game starts.

A special rate applies to Solo, which does not necessarily have to be based on the basic rate, but rather on the most convenient calculation and coin size.

In addition, a rate is often agreed between the basic rate and the Solo rate e. If a team is schneider at the end of the game ,the value of the game is increased by the basic tariff.

If they are schwarz it is increased by a further notch whether the game has been won by the declarer's team or the defenders has no effect on the tariff.

The payment of schneider is viewed as a matter of honour and paid voluntarily; by contrast, schwarz must be claimed by the winner.

In Wenz and Suit Solo schneider and schwarz are not always scored in long Schafkopf, but they always are in short Schafkopf. If a player holds a certain number of the highest trump cards in uninterrupted sequence, they are called matadors Laufende , Bauern or Herren.

Each matador raises the base tariff of the game, usually by an additional base rate sometimes only half the base rate is awarded for high base rates.

The number of matadors is determined as follows:. There are no fixed rules for Ramsch: A basic doubling of the rate is often found in the Wedding Hochzeit contract and is obligatory in Tout ; a Sie win attracts four times the basic rate.

After the players receive the first hand of cards four cards and before they take the second hand they can double the value of the game either by knocking on the table or calling "doppeln" to double.

Normally a specific token e. Depending on the exact local rules only the first, only one or all players can double the game. If more than one player doubles the game the factors get multiplied, i.

These factors take effect after all other bonuses are added. In the case of Tout the game cost again double but no Schneider or Schwarz bonus is paid.

The value of the game can be doubled further by Contra. This re-doubles the value of the game. Depending on the local rules, further challenges - "Sub" , "Re-Sub" and others - may be allowed, each one further doubling the value of the game.

This is called "Contra on the First Card ". Another variant allows defenders to say "Contra" before they play their own first card - known as "Contra with Eight Cards" - or that Re etc.

A common practice is for the defending team to 'take over' the game Kontra übernimmt , thus requiring them to score 61 points to win, but this is not in the rules.

After taking up the first four cards or three in the short game variant dealer: The term 'lay' comes from the usual practice of laying down a coin or other object, called the 'layer' Leger to indicate that the value of the game is doubled.

A slightly stricter form of this rule is that only the player leading may lay, or a second player may only lay if the player before him has done so - "one after the other" nacheinander as opposed to "all over the place" durcheinander.

Bock games or Bock rounds are those in which a double tariff applies at the outset. They can take place for various reasons, for example after the cards are thrown in, after lost Solos or double games as well as generally after schwarz or Re games.

A sweetener Stock , Pott , Henn , etc. With prior agreement, the declarer's team may claim the Stock if they win the game; if they lose it however, they must double the contents of the Stock.

In Schafkopf tournaments there is usually a special variant of the Stock called the Reuegeld. These contracts are an extension of the basic structure of classic Schafkopf; they are rarely found at tournaments but have a permanent place in many places where Schafkopf is played for fun.

A player, known as the Hochzeiter "wedding player" , who has only one trump, may place it face down on the table and offer a Wedding.

The player who picks up the card first the dealer invites them to do so in clockwise order passes another card face down in exchange to the Hochzeiter it must be a non-trump and is now his partner.

In the variant Bauernhochzeit "Farmer's Wedding , also called Doppelhochzeit , "Double Wedding" , two cards are exchanged.

The rules for Wedding vary slightly from region to region. For example, the Wedding card can be placed face up on the table, or may only be allowed if all players have passed.

In the very rare case that two players hold only one trump each, a Double Wedding is also possible.

The declaring team is the pair that announced the first Wedding. The players facing one another across the table automatically form teams.

A peculiarity of this variant is the fact that there is no declarer's team in the true sense; as a result, the following agreement usually applies, which varies from region to region: A mandatory game, the Muss "Must" is the most common variant in tournaments in the event that all four players pass.

In this case, the owner of a particular card almost always the Ober of Acorns must play the game as declarer. Muss has some special features: In addition, no Contra may be given.

If the Muss player is 'blocked' gesperrt i. If the Muss player holds all three suit Sows himself, he may also call a Suit Ten if necessary even a Suit King of his choice.

These games, too, are generally only of regional significance, as a result only the most common are described here. Geier is a derivative of Wenz, in which only the Obers act as trumps.

Similarly there are variants in which another card is given the function of the Unters in Wenz. Suit Wenz Farbwenz is a cross between Wenz and Suit Solo in which, in addition to the Unters as the highest trumps, a trump suit is also chosen.

The Obers are part of their suits which gives eleven trumps. Here too, there are variations in which another card takes on the function of the Unters in Suit Wenz; in Suit Geier Farbgeier , for example, it is the Obers.

Bettel is a classic negative contract, i. In many regions it can be played 'ouvert' Bettel Ouvert or Bettel Brett.

Related to Bettel is Ramsch Tout or Pfd; where the soloist aims to take no tricks again, but this time there are trumps Obers, Unters and Hearts.

Sometimes hybrids are also played, where the Obers and Unters are trumps, but there is no trump suit. Ramsch is a variation of the game played if no-one has bid often the 'last man' has the option of announcing Ramsch if the players bidding before him have all passed.

The declarer and the owner of the called Sow then play together and form the declarer's team, the other two are the defenders team.

The tricks won by the partners in each team are added together at the end of the hand. Usually it only becomes clear during the game who has the called Sow, known as the Rufsau ; initially only the player who has it knows.

But the Sow can be 'searched for' by one of the other 3 players leading a card of the called suit to a trick; if this happens, the Sow must be played, even if the player holds another card of that suit.

The Rufsau may not be discarded either. If a suit or trump is played in which the called player is void, he may not discard the Rufsau.

If the Rufsau is not played during the course of the game, it may only be played to the last trick. Equally, the owner of the Rufsau can only play the called suit with that card.

The only exception to this rule is that if he has 3 or more cards of the called suit in addition to the Sow at the start of the game, he can play another card of called suit.

Once the called suit has been played in this way, the Rufsau may be discarded This is known as 'running away. In all solo games, the soloist plays against the three other players.

Solo games always rank above over Normal games. Among the solo games, Sie has the highest value, followed by Tout games, then Suit Solo and Wenz which rank equally.

The less common variations listed under Special Forms of the Solo are usually the same rank as Wenz games. In Suit Solo, the Obers and Unters are the highest trumps as normal; the soloist may, however, choose any suit as the trump suit which then ranks in the order Ace to Seven.

In the past, a Heart Solo was sometimes ranked higher that the other Suit Solos, but that is no longer common today.

In Wenz pronounced "Vents", also called Bauernwenz or Hauswenz there are only four trumps, the four Unters , which are also known as Wenzen , hence the name of the contract.

They rank in the usual order from highest to lowest: Acorns, Leaves, Hearts and Bells. The Obers are ranked in their suits between the King and the Nine.

Hearts is just a normal suit. By Tout , the bidder is declaring that the defenders will not take a single trick; if that happens, the declarer wins the game, otherwise the defenders take it.

A Tout is normally valued at twice the normal game value. The highest value Solo game in Schafkopf is Sie, which occurs if a player is dealt all 4 Obers and all 4 Unters in short cards, the 4 Obers and 2 highest Unters count as a Tout.

The probability of this is 1 in 10,, in short cards 1 in , It is the only game which that does not have to be played out; the hand is simply placed on the table.

It normally scores four times the basic game value. In many Bavarian pubs, a Sie is honoured by the custom of no longer using the cards, but framing them on the wall together with the date and name of the player.

The four players sit crosswise as the table. Before the game begins, the first dealer is determined, usually by drawing the highest card from the deck.

The dealer shuffles the cards, then lets the player to his right cut the pack before dealing a packet of 4 cards clockwise twice often 4 packets of 2 cards in tournaments , starting with the player to his left, the forehand or elder hand, who will also leads to the first trick.

The role of dealer rotates clockwise; four games make a 'round'. When cutting, at least three cards must be lifted or left lying; taking this rule into account, the pack may be cut up to 3 times.

In this case, the cutter may instruct the dealer to deal the cards differently - for example, "all eight" instead of 2 packets of 4, or "anti-clockwise" , etc.

Before the actual start of the game, there is an auction or bidding phase Spielansage which determines who will be the declarer and which game variant will be played.

After that, the right to bid passes to the next player in a clockwise direction, until finally the dealer gets a chance to bid. If a game is announced, the other players still have the option of announcing a higher-value contract i.

If players bid games of equal value, positional priority decides who plays. If no player announces their intent to play all say "pass" or Weiter , there are several possibilities, which should be agreed upon before the start of play:.

Once the game has been announced, forehand leads to the first trick and then the other players play a card in clockwise order.

Once there are four cards on the table, the player who has won the trick cards picks it up and places it face down in a pile on the table.

The winner of the trick leads to the next trick and so on, until all 32 cards - 8 tricks - have been played. Depending on the type of card played, a distinction is made between 'suit tricks' and 'trump tricks'.

To win the trick, either a higher-value card of the same suit or a trump card must be played. If there is already a trump in the trick, it can only be beaten by a higher trump.

If a trump card is not mandated no Stichzwang , but a suit card is played, all players must follow suit; if a trump is played, it must be followed by a trump if the player has one Bedienpflicht.

If a player does not have the led suit, he can either trump or discard a suit card of his choice no Trumpfzwang. Failure to follow suit, criticising or verbally trying to influence the game generally results in the loss of the game.

If a trick is not yet completed i. After the game is over and the card points are counted, the game is scored. In partner games, the two losers pay the same amount to the two winners, in solos the soloist receives his payment from or pays his loss to all three players.

Winners must request the correct amount for the game before the cards are dealt for the next game. If the winner overclaims, then twice the difference can be recouped by the losing team if the rules are applied strictly.

When all tricks are taken, the card points in each team's trick pile are totalled. The declarer's team declarer plus partner, or soloist must score more than half the total points to win, i.

This means that the defenders only need 60 points to win. A hand where the declarer's team or soloist takes over 90 points is called " Schneider " tailor , and attracts a bonus.

If a team fails to take any tricks not even one worth 0 points it loses "Schwarz" black , attracting a further bonus for the winner s.

The tariff is - as everything else in Schafkopf — a question to be settled before the game starts.

A special rate applies to Solo, which does not necessarily have to be based on the basic rate, but rather on the most convenient calculation and coin size.

In addition, a rate is often agreed between the basic rate and the Solo rate e. If a team is schneider at the end of the game ,the value of the game is increased by the basic tariff.

If they are schwarz it is increased by a further notch whether the game has been won by the declarer's team or the defenders has no effect on the tariff.

The payment of schneider is viewed as a matter of honour and paid voluntarily; by contrast, schwarz must be claimed by the winner.

In Wenz and Suit Solo schneider and schwarz are not always scored in long Schafkopf, but they always are in short Schafkopf. If a player holds a certain number of the highest trump cards in uninterrupted sequence, they are called matadors Laufende , Bauern or Herren.

Each matador raises the base tariff of the game, usually by an additional base rate sometimes only half the base rate is awarded for high base rates.

The number of matadors is determined as follows:. There are no fixed rules for Ramsch: A basic doubling of the rate is often found in the Wedding Hochzeit contract and is obligatory in Tout ; a Sie win attracts four times the basic rate.

After the players receive the first hand of cards four cards and before they take the second hand they can double the value of the game either by knocking on the table or calling "doppeln" to double.

Normally a specific token e. Depending on the exact local rules only the first, only one or all players can double the game. If more than one player doubles the game the factors get multiplied, i.

These factors take effect after all other bonuses are added. In the case of Tout the game cost again double but no Schneider or Schwarz bonus is paid.

The value of the game can be doubled further by Contra. This re-doubles the value of the game. Depending on the local rules, further challenges - "Sub" , "Re-Sub" and others - may be allowed, each one further doubling the value of the game.

This is called "Contra on the First Card ". Another variant allows defenders to say "Contra" before they play their own first card - known as "Contra with Eight Cards" - or that Re etc.

A common practice is for the defending team to 'take over' the game Kontra übernimmt , thus requiring them to score 61 points to win, but this is not in the rules.

After taking up the first four cards or three in the short game variant dealer: The term 'lay' comes from the usual practice of laying down a coin or other object, called the 'layer' Leger to indicate that the value of the game is doubled.

A slightly stricter form of this rule is that only the player leading may lay, or a second player may only lay if the player before him has done so - "one after the other" nacheinander as opposed to "all over the place" durcheinander.

Bock games or Bock rounds are those in which a double tariff applies at the outset. They can take place for various reasons, for example after the cards are thrown in, after lost Solos or double games as well as generally after schwarz or Re games.

A sweetener Stock , Pott , Henn , etc. With prior agreement, the declarer's team may claim the Stock if they win the game; if they lose it however, they must double the contents of the Stock.

In Schafkopf tournaments there is usually a special variant of the Stock called the Reuegeld. These contracts are an extension of the basic structure of classic Schafkopf; they are rarely found at tournaments but have a permanent place in many places where Schafkopf is played for fun.

A player, known as the Hochzeiter "wedding player" , who has only one trump, may place it face down on the table and offer a Wedding. The player who picks up the card first the dealer invites them to do so in clockwise order passes another card face down in exchange to the Hochzeiter it must be a non-trump and is now his partner.

In the variant Bauernhochzeit "Farmer's Wedding , also called Doppelhochzeit , "Double Wedding" , two cards are exchanged. The rules for Wedding vary slightly from region to region.

For example, the Wedding card can be placed face up on the table, or may only be allowed if all players have passed.

In the very rare case that two players hold only one trump each, a Double Wedding is also possible. The declaring team is the pair that announced the first Wedding.

The players facing one another across the table automatically form teams. A peculiarity of this variant is the fact that there is no declarer's team in the true sense; as a result, the following agreement usually applies, which varies from region to region: A mandatory game, the Muss "Must" is the most common variant in tournaments in the event that all four players pass.

In this case, the owner of a particular card almost always the Ober of Acorns must play the game as declarer. Muss has some special features: In addition, no Contra may be given.

If the Muss player is 'blocked' gesperrt i. If the Muss player holds all three suit Sows himself, he may also call a Suit Ten if necessary even a Suit King of his choice.

These games, too, are generally only of regional significance, as a result only the most common are described here.

Geier is a derivative of Wenz, in which only the Obers act as trumps. Similarly there are variants in which another card is given the function of the Unters in Wenz.

Suit Wenz Farbwenz is a cross between Wenz and Suit Solo in which, in addition to the Unters as the highest trumps, a trump suit is also chosen.

The Obers are part of their suits which gives eleven trumps. Here too, there are variations in which another card takes on the function of the Unters in Suit Wenz; in Suit Geier Farbgeier , for example, it is the Obers.

Bettel is a classic negative contract, i. In many regions it can be played 'ouvert' Bettel Ouvert or Bettel Brett.

Related to Bettel is Ramsch Tout or Pfd; where the soloist aims to take no tricks again, but this time there are trumps Obers, Unters and Hearts.

Sometimes hybrids are also played, where the Obers and Unters are trumps, but there is no trump suit. Ramsch is a variation of the game played if no-one has bid often the 'last man' has the option of announcing Ramsch if the players bidding before him have all passed.

In contrast with the other contracts, everyone plays against everyone else, i. The same trump cards apply as for Rufspiel , but the aim is to score as few card points as possible.

The player with the most points loses and pays all the other players. If two or more players score the same number of points, the one with the most tricks loses.

If the number of tricks is also equal, the player with the most trumps in the tricks loses; if that number is also equal, the player with the higher trump loses.

Special rules adapted from Skat are the Durchmarsch or Mord , which correspond to a "sweep" or "slam", i. A variation of Ramsch is Schieberamsch , a special local variant, where the tricks are passed on clockwise at the end of the game, and where the player who has the least points at the end also wins.

Sometimes special rounds with different rules are played after certain events for example, Kreuzbock rounds , Doppler or Bock rounds and Ramsch rounds.

The Ober of Acorns and Ober of Leaves are removed from play before dealing; the dealer deals as usual, but receives only 6 cards himself.

Forehand picks up the 2 cards but may only allowed play a Suit Solo. He passes on pushes or schiebt any two cards face down to middlehand. Middlehand, in turn, picks up the cards and passes any two cards to rearhand; finally rearhand passes two cards of his choice to the dealer, who now has 8 cards; the game is then announced in the event that the player does not want to play a Solo, there are different rules; for example, the waiters can be pushed back to the dealer.

Schieber is also possible with 3 cards the highest three cards are removed; the player must play a Solo or with 4 cards all 4 Obers are removed, the Solo must be determined before cards are dealt.

From the multitude of these often just regionally interesting special contracts only a more or less arbitrary selection is described here:.

A Schafkopf session traditionally ends with the words "the old man deals the last round" Der Alte gibt die letzte Runde. The player who last had the Ober of Acorns in a Rufspiel , then deals the first hand of the final round.

For the last round, special rules sometimes apply double game values, only Solo games or the like. A popular variant in some parts of Bavaria is the "short" Schafkopf which is played with only 24 cards where the '7' and '8' cards of all suits are removed.

Every player only receives six cards 2x3. This makes the game faster and changes some playing tactics because of the changed probabilities.

Also a variant for only three players exists where also the short card deck with 24 cards is used but all players still receive eight cards.

Only solo games are allowed in this variant. This variant is normally only played when lacking a fourth player.

In Poland, "Kop" is played with just 16 cards, with four per player by excluding all but the Ace, 10s, Queens, and Jacks.

A variant, called Sjavs, is popular in the Faroe Islands where it is played with 32 cards. Schafkopf, as a genuine leisure pursuit, is, by definition, not organized; nevertheless, many clubs in public life, such as sports or shooting clubs, but also breweries and restaurants, regularly organize Schafkopf tournaments in Bavaria, where they are also called Schafkopfrennen "Schafkopf races".

Despite the comparatively uniform rules of these tournaments, there are still considerable regional differences.

Recently, the declining importance of the Schafkopf game as a leisure activity, especially among young people, has been discussed in Bavarian media.

More and more adult education centres in Bavaria offer Schafkopf courses. Schafkopf has its own language, known as Schafkopf-Sprache which is not always intelligible to outsiders.

The game has also entered Bavarian culture in other ways:. Until , the Guinness Book of Records recognized card game records only if they were based on a French deck of 52 cards.

Only after the intervention of Bavarian broadcasters, Bayerischer Rundfunk , was this rule relaxed and Schafkopf was recognized in this category; since then the record for continuous playing is held exclusively by Schafkopf groups for medical reasons the Guinness rules allow two substitutes.

The officially recognized record playing time is currently hours, placed in November by one Munich group. Germany — Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.

It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of , square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union.

After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig.

Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before AD.

During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.

During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in , Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.

After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in , the country was reunified.

In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods.

Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection.

Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.

The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three , year-old wooden javelins were unearthed.

Bavaria — Bavaria is a free state and one of 16 federal states of Germany. Located in the German southeast with an area of 70, square kilometres and its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, and, with Munich, Bavarias capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany, the Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year In , the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War, Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the states Catholic majority and conservative traditions.

Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes such as Oktoberfest. The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.

The Bavarians emerged in a north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century.

They first appear in written sources circa , a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE.

From about to , the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria and their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords.

Garibalds successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the frontier against the expansion of Slavs. Tassilos son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between and , after Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as From onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and his son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in , and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand.

At Theodos death the duchy was divided among his sons, at Hugberts death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia.

He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in , saint Boniface completed the peoples conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century.

Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Austria — Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.

It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83, km2.

The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion.

Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of , cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.

In , the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I.

This lasted until the end of World War II in , after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in , the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation.

In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states.

The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since , joined the European Union in , Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in , and adopted the euro currency in Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in , the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.

Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists.

Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.

Franconia — However, there is no fixed area that is officially defined as Franconia.

With prior agreement, the declarer's team may claim the Stock if they win the game; if they lose it however, they must double the contents of the Stock.

In Schafkopf tournaments there is usually a special variant of the Stock called the Reuegeld. These contracts are an extension of the basic structure of classic Schafkopf; they are rarely found at tournaments but have a permanent place in many places where Schafkopf is played for fun.

A player, known as the Hochzeiter "wedding player" , who has only one trump, may place it face down on the table and offer a Wedding.

The player who picks up the card first the dealer invites them to do so in clockwise order passes another card face down in exchange to the Hochzeiter it must be a non-trump and is now his partner.

In the variant Bauernhochzeit "Farmer's Wedding , also called Doppelhochzeit , "Double Wedding" , two cards are exchanged. The rules for Wedding vary slightly from region to region.

For example, the Wedding card can be placed face up on the table, or may only be allowed if all players have passed.

In the very rare case that two players hold only one trump each, a Double Wedding is also possible. The declaring team is the pair that announced the first Wedding.

The players facing one another across the table automatically form teams. A peculiarity of this variant is the fact that there is no declarer's team in the true sense; as a result, the following agreement usually applies, which varies from region to region: A mandatory game, the Muss "Must" is the most common variant in tournaments in the event that all four players pass.

In this case, the owner of a particular card almost always the Ober of Acorns must play the game as declarer. Muss has some special features: In addition, no Contra may be given.

If the Muss player is 'blocked' gesperrt i. If the Muss player holds all three suit Sows himself, he may also call a Suit Ten if necessary even a Suit King of his choice.

These games, too, are generally only of regional significance, as a result only the most common are described here. Geier is a derivative of Wenz, in which only the Obers act as trumps.

Similarly there are variants in which another card is given the function of the Unters in Wenz. Suit Wenz Farbwenz is a cross between Wenz and Suit Solo in which, in addition to the Unters as the highest trumps, a trump suit is also chosen.

The Obers are part of their suits which gives eleven trumps. Here too, there are variations in which another card takes on the function of the Unters in Suit Wenz; in Suit Geier Farbgeier , for example, it is the Obers.

Bettel is a classic negative contract, i. In many regions it can be played 'ouvert' Bettel Ouvert or Bettel Brett. Related to Bettel is Ramsch Tout or Pfd; where the soloist aims to take no tricks again, but this time there are trumps Obers, Unters and Hearts.

Sometimes hybrids are also played, where the Obers and Unters are trumps, but there is no trump suit. Ramsch is a variation of the game played if no-one has bid often the 'last man' has the option of announcing Ramsch if the players bidding before him have all passed.

In contrast with the other contracts, everyone plays against everyone else, i. The same trump cards apply as for Rufspiel , but the aim is to score as few card points as possible.

The player with the most points loses and pays all the other players. If two or more players score the same number of points, the one with the most tricks loses.

If the number of tricks is also equal, the player with the most trumps in the tricks loses; if that number is also equal, the player with the higher trump loses.

Special rules adapted from Skat are the Durchmarsch or Mord , which correspond to a "sweep" or "slam", i.

A variation of Ramsch is Schieberamsch , a special local variant, where the tricks are passed on clockwise at the end of the game, and where the player who has the least points at the end also wins.

Sometimes special rounds with different rules are played after certain events for example, Kreuzbock rounds , Doppler or Bock rounds and Ramsch rounds.

The Ober of Acorns and Ober of Leaves are removed from play before dealing; the dealer deals as usual, but receives only 6 cards himself.

Forehand picks up the 2 cards but may only allowed play a Suit Solo. He passes on pushes or schiebt any two cards face down to middlehand.

Middlehand, in turn, picks up the cards and passes any two cards to rearhand; finally rearhand passes two cards of his choice to the dealer, who now has 8 cards; the game is then announced in the event that the player does not want to play a Solo, there are different rules; for example, the waiters can be pushed back to the dealer.

Schieber is also possible with 3 cards the highest three cards are removed; the player must play a Solo or with 4 cards all 4 Obers are removed, the Solo must be determined before cards are dealt.

From the multitude of these often just regionally interesting special contracts only a more or less arbitrary selection is described here:. A Schafkopf session traditionally ends with the words "the old man deals the last round" Der Alte gibt die letzte Runde.

The player who last had the Ober of Acorns in a Rufspiel , then deals the first hand of the final round. For the last round, special rules sometimes apply double game values, only Solo games or the like.

A popular variant in some parts of Bavaria is the "short" Schafkopf which is played with only 24 cards where the '7' and '8' cards of all suits are removed.

Every player only receives six cards 2x3. This makes the game faster and changes some playing tactics because of the changed probabilities.

Also a variant for only three players exists where also the short card deck with 24 cards is used but all players still receive eight cards.

Only solo games are allowed in this variant. This variant is normally only played when lacking a fourth player. In Poland, "Kop" is played with just 16 cards, with four per player by excluding all but the Ace, 10s, Queens, and Jacks.

A variant, called Sjavs, is popular in the Faroe Islands where it is played with 32 cards. Schafkopf, as a genuine leisure pursuit, is, by definition, not organized; nevertheless, many clubs in public life, such as sports or shooting clubs, but also breweries and restaurants, regularly organize Schafkopf tournaments in Bavaria, where they are also called Schafkopfrennen "Schafkopf races".

Despite the comparatively uniform rules of these tournaments, there are still considerable regional differences. Recently, the declining importance of the Schafkopf game as a leisure activity, especially among young people, has been discussed in Bavarian media.

More and more adult education centres in Bavaria offer Schafkopf courses. Schafkopf has its own language, known as Schafkopf-Sprache which is not always intelligible to outsiders.

The game has also entered Bavarian culture in other ways:. Until , the Guinness Book of Records recognized card game records only if they were based on a French deck of 52 cards.

Only after the intervention of Bavarian broadcasters, Bayerischer Rundfunk , was this rule relaxed and Schafkopf was recognized in this category; since then the record for continuous playing is held exclusively by Schafkopf groups for medical reasons the Guinness rules allow two substitutes.

The officially recognized record playing time is currently hours, placed in November by one Munich group. Germany — Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.

It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of , square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union.

After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig.

Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before AD.

During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.

During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in , Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.

After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in , the country was reunified.

In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods.

Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection.

Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.

The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three , year-old wooden javelins were unearthed.

Bavaria — Bavaria is a free state and one of 16 federal states of Germany. Located in the German southeast with an area of 70, square kilometres and its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, and, with Munich, Bavarias capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany, the Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year In , the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War, Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the states Catholic majority and conservative traditions.

Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes such as Oktoberfest. The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.

The Bavarians emerged in a north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century.

They first appear in written sources circa , a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE.

From about to , the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria and their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords.

Garibalds successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the frontier against the expansion of Slavs.

Tassilos son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between and , after Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as From onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and his son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in , and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand.

At Theodos death the duchy was divided among his sons, at Hugberts death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia.

He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in , saint Boniface completed the peoples conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century.

Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Austria — Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.

It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83, km2.

The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion.

Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of , cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.

In , the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I.

This lasted until the end of World War II in , after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in , the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation.

In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states.

The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since , joined the European Union in , Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in , and adopted the euro currency in Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in , the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.

Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.

Franconia — However, there is no fixed area that is officially defined as Franconia. The German word Franken - Franconians - also refers to the people group and they are to be distinguished from the Germanic tribe of the Franks and who historically formed their easternmost settlement area.

The origins of Franconia lie in the settlement of the Franks from the 6th century in the area probably populated until then mainly by the Elbe Germanic people in the Main river area.

Known from the 9th century as Francia Orientalis. In the course of the restructuring of the south German states by Napoleon after the demise of the Holy Roman Empire, the German name for Franconia, Franken, comes from the dative plural form of Franke, a member of the Germanic tribe known as the Franks.

The onomatologists largely follow the book compiled by early medieval scholar, Saint Isidore of Seville. This syllable occurs in the Middle Dutch vrac, avaricious, and old Norwegian frakkr, quick, bold, according to this the Franks were thus the brave ones, courageous ones or audacious ones.

From the 9th century the name no longer referred to the whole of France, but increasingly to the region along the River Main.

The German word frank in the sense of free is, by contrast, not a description of the Franks. Not until the 15th century was the German word frei borrowed from the French, other large rivers include the upper Werra in Thuringia and the Tauber, as well as the upper Jagst and Kocher streams in the west, both right tributaries of the Neckar.

In southern Middle Franconia, the Altmühl flows towards the Danube, the man-made Franconian Lake District has become a popular destination for day-trippers and tourists.

The landscape is characterized by numerous Mittelgebirge ranges of the German Central Uplands, to the north rise the Rennsteig ridge of the Thuringian Forest, the Thuringian Highland and the Franconian Forest, the border with the Upper Saxon lands of Thuringia.

The northern parts of the Upper Bavarian Eichstätt District, territory of the historical Bishopric of Eichstätt, are counted as part of Franconia.

In the west, Franconia proper comprises the Tauber Franconia region along the Tauber river, the states larger Heilbronn-Franken region also includes the adjacent Hohenlohe and Schwäbisch Hall districts.

In the city of Heilbronn, beyond the Haller Ebene plateau, furthermore, in those easternmost parts of the Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis which had formerly belonged to the Bishopric of Würzburg, the inhabitants have preserved their Franconian identity.

Though located on the periphery of the area, the Nuremberg metropolitan area is often identified as the economic. Altenburg — Altenburg is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located 40 kilometres south of Leipzig,90 kilometres west of Dresden and kilometres east of Erfurt.

Altenburg was first mentioned in and later one of the first German cities within former Slavic area.

The emperor Frederick Barbarossa visited Altenburg several times between and , hence the town is named a Barbarossa town today, since the 17th century, Altenburg was the residence of different Ernestine duchies, of whom the Saxe-Altenburg persisted until the end of monarchy in Germany in Industrialization reached Altenburg and the region early in the first half of the 19th century.

Economic malaise set in while Altenburg was in East Germany and continued after German reunification in , evidenced by a decline in population, high unemployment, the main sights of Altenburg are the castle, the Lindenau-Museum, the historic city centre and the Gründerzeit architecture around the centre.

The towns location on the imperial road Via Imperii between Halle and Cheb in Bohemia gave Altenburg economic importance in the salt trade.

The first castle, located under the present day church St. Sobald vier Karten auf dem Tisch liegen, entscheidet sich, welchem Spieler der Stich gehört.

Dieser nimmt die Stichkarten an sich und spielt die nächste Karte an; der weitere Verlauf erfolgt analog, bis alle 32 Karten — entsprechend 8 Stichen — gespielt sind.

Je nach Art der jeweils angespielten Karte unterscheidet man Farb- und Trumpfstiche. Um zum Stich zu gelangen, ist entweder ein höherwertiges Bild derselben Farbe oder ein Trumpf zuzugeben.

Befindet sich schon ein Trumpf im Stich, kann dieser nur mit einem höheren Trumpf gestochen werden. Das Überstechen mit einer höherwertigen Farb- oder Trumpfkarte ist keine Pflicht kein Stichzwang , wird jedoch eine Farbe angespielt, müssen alle Spieler Karten derselben Farbe zugeben; wird ein Trumpf angespielt, muss entsprechend Trumpf zugegeben werden Bedienpflicht.

Hat ein Spieler die angespielte Farbe nicht, kann er entweder mit Trumpf stechen oder eine beliebige Farbkarte seiner Wahl abwerfen kein Trumpfzwang.

Ist ein Stich noch nicht abgeschlossen liegen also die Karten noch offen auf dem Tisch , hat jeder Spieler das Recht, auf Anfrage den vorhergegangenen Stich einzusehen.

Nach Beendigung des Spiels und Auszählen der Punkte wird dieses gewertet. Bei Partnerspielen zahlen die beiden Verlierer an die beiden Gewinner den jeweils gleichen Betrag, bei Soli erhält der Solospieler seinen Gewinn bzw.

Die Gewinner müssen den korrekten Betrag der Spielabrechnung verlangen, bevor die Karten zum nächsten Spiel abgehoben worden sind. Wurde zu viel verlangt, kann bei strenger Regelauslegung der Differenzbetrag von der Verliererpartei doppelt zurückverlangt werden.

Für das Rufspiel wird auch oft ein zwischen Grund- und Solotarif liegender Tarif vereinbart z.

Wird nach Spielende eine Partei Schneider, erhöht sich der Wert des Spiels einmal um den Grundtarif, bei Schwarz ein weiteres Mal ob Spieler- oder Nichtspielerpartei gewonnen haben, spielt für die Tarifermittlung keine Rolle.

Schneider versteht sich hierbei als Ehrensache und wird freiwillig bezahlt, Schwarz muss hingegen vom Gewinner eingefordert werden. Bei Wenz und Farb-Solo werden Schneider und Schwarz im langen Schafkopf nicht immer berechnet, im kurzen Schafkopf hingegen grundsätzlich.

Befindet sich eine gewisse Anzahl der höchsten Trümpfe in ununterbrochener Reihenfolge in den Händen einer der beiden Parteien, nennt man dies Laufende oder auch Bauern, Herren.

Jeder Laufende erhöht den Basispreis des Spiels, normalerweise um einen weiteren Grundtarif bei hohen Basispreisen wird manchmal nur der halbe Grundtarif berechnet.

Keine festen Regeln gibt es beim Ramsch: Entweder zahlt der Verlierer den Grundtarif oder einen eigens abgemachten Tarif an alle Spieler aus oder die beiden Spieler mit den meisten Punkten zahlen an die anderen beiden besondere Konstellationen, die den Wert dieses Spiels erhöhen, sind im Kapitel Ramsch aufgeführt.

Eine grundsätzliche Verdoppelung des Tarifs findet man oft bei der Hochzeit sowie obligatorisch beim Tout ; beim Sie wird der Vierfache Tarif berechnet.

Eine Übernahme des Spiels durch die Nichtspieler-Partei d. Nach Aufnahme der ersten vier bzw. Der Begriff legen erklärt sich dadurch, dass üblicherweise durch Herauslegen einer Münze oder eines anderen Gegenstandes, des Legers, angezeigt wird, dass der Spielwert verdoppelt wird.

Eine leicht entschärfte Form dieser Regelung kommt zustande, wenn nur der Ausspieler legen darf oder der zweite Spieler nur legen darf, wenn der vor ihm befindliche Spieler bereits gelegt hat — nacheinander im Gegensatz zu durcheinander.

Unter Bockspielen oder -runden versteht man Spiele oder Runden, bei denen per se der doppelte Tarif zählt. Sie können aus den verschiedensten Anlässen stattfinden, zum Beispiel nach dem Zusammenwerfen, nach verlorenen Soli oder Kontra-Spielen sowie generell nach Schwarz- oder Re-Spielen.

In den Stock Pott, Henn usw. Durch ein vorher vereinbartes, für die Spielerpartei gewonnenes Spiel kann der Stock durch den Spieler gewonnen werden; wird dieses Spiel verloren, muss der Spieler oder die Spielerpartei den Inhalt des Stocks verdoppeln.

Bei Schafkopfturnieren findet man gelegentlich eine besondere Variante des Stocks, das sogenannte Reuegeld.

Diese Spiele erweitern das Grundgerüst des klassischen Schafkopfs; auf Turnieren eher selten zu finden, haben sie in vielen etablierten Freizeitrunden ihren festen Platz.

Ein Spieler Hochzeiter , der nur einen einzigen Trumpf hat, legt diesen verdeckt auf dem Tisch aus und bietet damit eine Hochzeit an. Derjenige, der die Karte nun zuerst nimmt gefragt wird wieder ausgehend vom Geber im Uhrzeigersinn schiebt dem Hochzeiter verdeckt eine Ersatzkarte zwingend ein Nicht-Trumpf zu und ist nun dessen Partner.

Bei der Variante Bauernhochzeit auch: Doppelhochzeit werden zwei Karten ausgetauscht. Die Regeln für die Hochzeit sind regional etwas unterschiedlich; so kann die Karte des Hochzeiters auch offen auf den Tisch gelegt werden, oder sie ist erst erlaubt, wenn alle Spieler weiter sind.

Im sehr seltenen Fall, dass zwei Spieler nur jeweils einen Trumpf halten, ist auch eine Doppelte Hochzeit möglich. Als Spielerpartei gilt dabei dasjenige Paar, das den ersten Hochzeiter ansagt.

Dabei gehören die gegenüber überkreuz sitzenden Mitspieler automatisch als Partner zusammen. Eine Besonderheit dieser Variante ist die Tatsache, dass es keine Spielerpartei im eigentlichen Sinn gibt; normalerweise gilt daher — regional unterschiedlich gehandhabt — folgende Übereinkunft:.

Das Muss-Spiel hat einige Besonderheiten; so gilt das Spiel für die Spielerpartei bereits mit 60 Augen als gewonnen und mit 30 Augen als Schneider frei entsprechend mit 90 Augen als mit Schneider gewonnen.

Auch diese Spiele haben meist nur regionale Bedeutung, daher werden hier nur die gängigsten aufgeführt. Auch hier gibt es Varianten, in denen ein anderes Kartenblatt die Funktion der Unter im Farbwenz übernimmt, beim Farbgeier etwa die Ober.

Der Bettel ist ein klassisches Negativspiel, d. In manchen Regionen kann er auch offen ouvert oder Bettel-Brett gespielt werden. Manchmal wird auch eine Mischvariante gespielt.

Hierbei gelten zwar Ober und Unter als Trumpf, es existiert aber keine Trumpffarbe. Depending on the type of card played, a distinction is made between 'suit tricks' and 'trump tricks'.

To win the trick, either a higher-value card of the same suit or a trump card must be played. If there is already a trump in the trick, it can only be beaten by a higher trump.

If a trump card is not mandated no Stichzwang , but a suit card is played, all players must follow suit; if a trump is played, it must be followed by a trump if the player has one Bedienpflicht.

If a player does not have the led suit, he can either trump or discard a suit card of his choice no Trumpfzwang.

Failure to follow suit, criticising or verbally trying to influence the game generally results in the loss of the game.

If a trick is not yet completed i. After the game is over and the card points are counted, the game is scored.

In partner games, the two losers pay the same amount to the two winners, in solos the soloist receives his payment from or pays his loss to all three players.

Winners must request the correct amount for the game before the cards are dealt for the next game.

If the winner overclaims, then twice the difference can be recouped by the losing team if the rules are applied strictly.

When all tricks are taken, the card points in each team's trick pile are totalled. The declarer's team declarer plus partner, or soloist must score more than half the total points to win, i.

This means that the defenders only need 60 points to win. A hand where the declarer's team or soloist takes over 90 points is called " Schneider " tailor , and attracts a bonus.

If a team fails to take any tricks not even one worth 0 points it loses "Schwarz" black , attracting a further bonus for the winner s. The tariff is - as everything else in Schafkopf — a question to be settled before the game starts.

A special rate applies to Solo, which does not necessarily have to be based on the basic rate, but rather on the most convenient calculation and coin size.

In addition, a rate is often agreed between the basic rate and the Solo rate e. If a team is schneider at the end of the game ,the value of the game is increased by the basic tariff.

If they are schwarz it is increased by a further notch whether the game has been won by the declarer's team or the defenders has no effect on the tariff.

The payment of schneider is viewed as a matter of honour and paid voluntarily; by contrast, schwarz must be claimed by the winner.

In Wenz and Suit Solo schneider and schwarz are not always scored in long Schafkopf, but they always are in short Schafkopf. If a player holds a certain number of the highest trump cards in uninterrupted sequence, they are called matadors Laufende , Bauern or Herren.

Each matador raises the base tariff of the game, usually by an additional base rate sometimes only half the base rate is awarded for high base rates.

The number of matadors is determined as follows:. There are no fixed rules for Ramsch: A basic doubling of the rate is often found in the Wedding Hochzeit contract and is obligatory in Tout ; a Sie win attracts four times the basic rate.

After the players receive the first hand of cards four cards and before they take the second hand they can double the value of the game either by knocking on the table or calling "doppeln" to double.

Normally a specific token e. Depending on the exact local rules only the first, only one or all players can double the game. If more than one player doubles the game the factors get multiplied, i.

These factors take effect after all other bonuses are added. In the case of Tout the game cost again double but no Schneider or Schwarz bonus is paid.

The value of the game can be doubled further by Contra. This re-doubles the value of the game. Depending on the local rules, further challenges - "Sub" , "Re-Sub" and others - may be allowed, each one further doubling the value of the game.

This is called "Contra on the First Card ". Another variant allows defenders to say "Contra" before they play their own first card - known as "Contra with Eight Cards" - or that Re etc.

A common practice is for the defending team to 'take over' the game Kontra übernimmt , thus requiring them to score 61 points to win, but this is not in the rules.

After taking up the first four cards or three in the short game variant dealer: The term 'lay' comes from the usual practice of laying down a coin or other object, called the 'layer' Leger to indicate that the value of the game is doubled.

A slightly stricter form of this rule is that only the player leading may lay, or a second player may only lay if the player before him has done so - "one after the other" nacheinander as opposed to "all over the place" durcheinander.

Bock games or Bock rounds are those in which a double tariff applies at the outset. They can take place for various reasons, for example after the cards are thrown in, after lost Solos or double games as well as generally after schwarz or Re games.

A sweetener Stock , Pott , Henn , etc. With prior agreement, the declarer's team may claim the Stock if they win the game; if they lose it however, they must double the contents of the Stock.

In Schafkopf tournaments there is usually a special variant of the Stock called the Reuegeld. These contracts are an extension of the basic structure of classic Schafkopf; they are rarely found at tournaments but have a permanent place in many places where Schafkopf is played for fun.

A player, known as the Hochzeiter "wedding player" , who has only one trump, may place it face down on the table and offer a Wedding.

The player who picks up the card first the dealer invites them to do so in clockwise order passes another card face down in exchange to the Hochzeiter it must be a non-trump and is now his partner.

In the variant Bauernhochzeit "Farmer's Wedding , also called Doppelhochzeit , "Double Wedding" , two cards are exchanged.

The rules for Wedding vary slightly from region to region. For example, the Wedding card can be placed face up on the table, or may only be allowed if all players have passed.

In the very rare case that two players hold only one trump each, a Double Wedding is also possible. The declaring team is the pair that announced the first Wedding.

The players facing one another across the table automatically form teams. A peculiarity of this variant is the fact that there is no declarer's team in the true sense; as a result, the following agreement usually applies, which varies from region to region: A mandatory game, the Muss "Must" is the most common variant in tournaments in the event that all four players pass.

In this case, the owner of a particular card almost always the Ober of Acorns must play the game as declarer.

Muss has some special features: In addition, no Contra may be given. If the Muss player is 'blocked' gesperrt i. If the Muss player holds all three suit Sows himself, he may also call a Suit Ten if necessary even a Suit King of his choice.

These games, too, are generally only of regional significance, as a result only the most common are described here. Geier is a derivative of Wenz, in which only the Obers act as trumps.

Similarly there are variants in which another card is given the function of the Unters in Wenz. Suit Wenz Farbwenz is a cross between Wenz and Suit Solo in which, in addition to the Unters as the highest trumps, a trump suit is also chosen.

The Obers are part of their suits which gives eleven trumps. Here too, there are variations in which another card takes on the function of the Unters in Suit Wenz; in Suit Geier Farbgeier , for example, it is the Obers.

Bettel is a classic negative contract, i. In many regions it can be played 'ouvert' Bettel Ouvert or Bettel Brett.

Related to Bettel is Ramsch Tout or Pfd; where the soloist aims to take no tricks again, but this time there are trumps Obers, Unters and Hearts.

Sometimes hybrids are also played, where the Obers and Unters are trumps, but there is no trump suit.

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